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Uploaded on on Jul 15, 2021

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Lobsters belong to the Nephropidae family of giant marine crustaceans (sometimes known as Homeridae).

Lobsters have long bodies and strong tails, and they dwell in seafloor crevices or burrows. Claws are present on three of their five pairs of legs, the first of which is generally much bigger than the others. Lobsters are highly regarded as seafood and are frequently one of the most valuable commodities in the coastal areas where they live.

Two species of Homarus (which resembles the conventional lobster) from the northern Atlantic Ocean, as well as scampi (which resembles a shrimp or a “little lobster”) — the Northern Hemisphere genus Nephrops and the Southern Hemisphere genus Metanephrops — are commercially significant.

Although the word “lobster” appears in the titles of numerous other crab families, the unqualified term “lobster” refers to the clawed lobsters of the Nephropidae family. Clawed lobsters are not related to spiny lobsters, slipper lobsters, or squat lobsters, which lack claws (chelae). The reef lobsters and the three groups of freshwater crayfish are clawed lobsters’ closest surviving cousins.

Lobsters are invertebrates with a strong exoskeleton that protects them from predators. Lobsters, like most arthropods, must moult to develop, making them susceptible. Several animals change color during the moulting process. Lobsters have eight walking legs, with the first three pairs having bigger claws than the others. Because the front pincers are also considered legs in biology, they are classified as Decapods (“ten-footed”). Although lobsters, like most other arthropods, have mainly bilaterally symmetrical claws, certain taxa have uneven, specialized claws.

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The cephalothorax and the abdomen are the two primary body sections of lobsters. The cephalothorax joins the head and thorax, which are both protected by a chitinous carapace. Antennae, antennules, mandibles, and the first and second maxillae are all found on the lobster’s head. The compound eyes (typically stalked) are also seen on the head. Lobsters primarily utilize their antennae as sensors since they live in murky conditions at the ocean’s bottom.

Above a convex retina, the lobster eye features a reflecting structure. Most sophisticated eyes, on the other hand, employ refractive ray concentrators (lenses) and a concave retina. The thorax of the lobster is made up of maxillipeds, which are mostly mouthparts, and pereiopods, which are used for walking and obtaining food. Pleopods (also known as swimmerets) are used for swimming, and the tail fan, which is made up of uropods and the telson, is located on the abdomen.

Lobsters, like snails and spiders, have blue blood because hemocyanin, a copper-based pigment, is present. Vertebrates and many other creatures, on the other hand, have red blood that is made up of iron-rich hemoglobin. Lobsters have a green hepatopancreas, often known as the tomalley, that serves as the animal’s liver and pancreas.

Lobsters of the Nephropidae family have a similar general shape to a number of other closely related groups. They vary from freshwater crayfish in that they lack the joint connecting the final two segments of the thorax, and they differ from reef lobsters of the Enoplometopidae in that they have complete claws on all three pairs of legs rather than just one. The pattern of grooves on the carapace distinguishes them from extinct groups like the Chilenophoberidae.

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