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Uploaded on on Sep 5, 2021


A mushroom, sometimes known as a toadstool, is a fungus’ fleshy, spore-bearing fruiting body that grows above ground, on soil, or on its food supply.

The farmed white button mushroom, Agaricus sports, is the standard for the name “mushroom,” hence the term “mushroom” is most frequently used to refer to fungus (Basidiomycota, Agaricomycetes) with a stem (stipe), a cap (pileus), and gills (lamellae, sing. lamella) on the underside of the cap. The word “mushroom” is used to designate the fleshy fruiting bodies of certain Ascomycota, as well as a range of another gilled fungus with or without stems. These gills generate tiny spores, which aid in the spread of the fungus throughout the ground or the occupant’s surface.

More specific names are given to forms that deviate from the normal morphology, such as “bolete,” “puffball,” “stinkhorn,” and “morel,” and gilled mushrooms are commonly referred to as “agarics” because of their resemblance to Agaricus or the Agaricales order. By extension, the term “mushroom” can refer to the whole fungus in the culture, the thallus (also known as a mycelium) of species that produce mushroom-like fruiting bodies, or the species itself.

The names “mushroom” and “toadstool” date back centuries and have never been exactly defined, nor has there ever been agreement on how they should be used. The names mushroom, mushroom, muscheron, mushrooms, mussheron, or musserouns were used in the 15th and 16th centuries.

The name “mushroom” and its variants may have come from the French word mousse on, which means “moss” (mousse). Because it’s difficult to tell the difference between edible and dangerous fungus, a “mushroom” might be edible, poisonous, or unpleasant. Toadstool was initially used in 14th century England to refer to a toad’s “stool,” probably implying an inedible toxic fungus.


Mushroom identification necessitates a fundamental grasp of their macroscopic structure. The majority are gilled Basidiomycetes. Their spores, known as basidiospores, are generated on the gills and fall in a fine powder shower from beneath the caps. Basidiospores are fired from basidia and fall between the gills in the dead air gap at a tiny level. As a result, if the cap is cut off and placed gill-side-down overnight for most mushrooms, a powdery imprint resembling the shape of the gills (or pores, or spines, etc.) is created (when the fruit body is sporulating). The color of the powdery print, known as a spore print, is used to help categorize and identify mushrooms. White (the most frequent), brown, black, purple-brown, pink, yellow, and creamy are the most common spore print colors, although blue, green, and red are very never seen.

While contemporary mushroom identification is rapidly becoming molecular, most people still utilize the traditional methods, which have evolved into a beautiful art harking back to medieval times and the Victorian era when paired with microscopic analysis. Both amateur and expert mycologists examine the presence of fluids upon breaking, bruising reactions, smells, tastes, shades of color, habitat, habit, and season. Because of poisons and allergies, tasting and smelling mushrooms come with its own set of risks. For certain genera, chemical testing is also performed.

In most cases, identification of genus may be made in the field with the help of a local mushroom guide. Identification of species, on the other hand, takes more work; recall that a mushroom grows from a button stage to a mature structure, and only the latter may give specific features necessary for species identification. Over-mature specimens, on the other hand, lose their characteristics and stop releasing spores. Many newcomers have mistaken wet paper for white spore prints or stained paper from seeping liquids on lamella margins for colored spore prints.

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